Turkmenistan

Hot Turkmenistan is the brilliant heart of Central Asia. The great dynasties of the past left a legacy of magnificent palaces, mosques and caravanserais. The Karakum, the capital of Ashgabat and the ancient Merv, horses, carpets and pilaf - all about Turkmenistan: map, cities, photos, tours.

The country of the Great Silk Road and the great Karakum desert, Turkmenistan today is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Central Asia. Tourists are attracted here by the ruins of the glorious cities of the past of almost all known histories of the powerful dynasties of Asia and Persia, endless steppes and eternal "black sands", thoroughly forgotten in the post-Soviet times, but such an alluring life: skullcaps and pilaf, Akhal-Teke horses and colorful folk weddings, Kyzyl, green tea, famous carpets of magnificent beauty, the finest silks and honey melons. Among other things, here you can see with your own eyes that there is a personality cult in Turkmen - and, frankly, not to believe that this is possible in the 21st century, and not in non-Roman Rome or the feudal vassal Middle Ages. What are there at least a golden statue of the president turning after the sun, a lifelong "army" and the morning obligatory oath of allegiance to the "father of Turkmen"! In a word, now, as before, Turkmenistan knows how to surprise us.

Cities and regions
The capital is Ashgabat. The main cities are Turkmenabad, Dashoguz, Mary, Balkanabad, Turkmenbashi.

Entertainment and Attractions
Turkmenistan is the focus of monuments of the great dynasties of the past: Timurid, Sassanid, Khorezmshahs, whose scions built new cities and erected magnificent palaces, laid mosques and caravanserais, created the basis for magnificent libraries and observatories. The ancient cities of Koneurgench, Merv, Nisa, the Great Silk Road stops, medieval forts and mausoleums are the basis of the Turkmen "excursion". In addition, there are many natural sights throughout the country: the Karakum Desert, the Kou-Ata Sulfur Lake, the burning Darvaza Crater, the Repetek National Parks, the Kugitang and the Kopetdag National Parks and many other interesting places.

In Ashgabat, it is worth visiting the site of the town of Nisa (1 thousand BC), which was once the capital of the powerful Parthian kingdom. Here you can see the remains of two fortresses, temples, palace halls, the grave of the Arsakid dynasty. You should definitely walk through the colorful medieval bazaars: the huge Dzhygyllyk, Gulistan, Lalezar and Tekinsky bazaar. The Museum of Carpets tells interestingly about the history of carpet weaving, traditions and ways of weaving carpets, as well as many artifacts - from the oldest specimen (17th century) to the modern giant of 301 square meters. m, named, of course, "The Golden Age of the Great Saparmurat Turkmenbashi." The theme continues with the cyclopean-sized mosque "Turkmenbashi Ruhi", built in the native village of the former president 15 km from the capital, and the abundance of architectural structures of our time: Turkmenbashi and Ruhiet palaces, Independence Monument and Neutrality Arch, business centers, parks and fountains.

The sights of Mary, ancient Merv are the Erk-Kala citadel of the Achaemenid dynasty, the medieval settlement Gyaur-Kala with the ruins of monasteries and castles of the nobility, the Seljuk ancient settlement of Sultan-Kala and the citadel of Shakhriyar-Ark, the ruins of the Parthian city of Gebekly, the holy city of Gonur-Depe, the medieval chateau, the holy gonor of Archeology; -Keshk and Akuyli-Koushuk, mosques, mausoleums and tombs.

In Turkmenbashi, the Shir-Kabib 10th century mausoleum, the Parau-bibi mosque, an important center of Muslim pilgrimage, the Tasharvat caravanserai, the Dehistan valley and the ruins of the medieval town of Misrian with two well-preserved 20-meter minarets, are of interest.

In Turkmenabad, you should visit the Repetek reserve, part of the Karakum desert, the hottest place in all of Central Asia, the ancient settlement in Amul-Charjui, the city-museum of Atamurat with the mausoleum of Almutasir and Astana-baba, the ancient caravanserai of Bai-Khatyn, which has relief fragments decorative stone carvings with the names of the righteous caliphs - Omar, Abu-Bakr and Ali.

Geography

Turkmenistan is a state located in the western part of Central Asia, bordering with Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Iran and Afghanistan. The area of ​​Turkmenistan is 488,100 km², the state extends to 1,100 km from west to east and 650 km from north to south. The length of the borders is 3,736 km, of which 1,621 km are with Uzbekistan, 992 km are with Iran, 744 km are with Afghanistan and 379 km are with Kazakhstan.

From the west, Turkmenistan is washed by the Caspian Sea. The coastline of 1768 km long [1] is not much indented; large gulfs of Kara-Bogaz-Gol, Krasnovodsk Bay (with the smaller Balkhan Bay) and Turkmen Bay are distinguished. The gulfs are formed peninsula Krasnovodsky and Cheleken.

Climate

Turkmenistan is the hottest country in Central Asia. In July and August, the temperature in Ashgabat can reach +50 ° C. In general, the country is dominated by a sharply continental arid climate with constantly blowing northerly winds that bring cold air from the steppes of Kazakhstan in winter and heat, sand storms and dry winds in summer. The average January temperature in the southern regions is +4 ° C, in the north of the country - −5 ° C, in the Karakumy - as much as −25 ...- 30 ° C. In July, in the south of Turkmenistan, the thermometer is on average kept at +35 ° C, in the north - +27 ° C, in desert areas the temperature reaches +50 ° C during the daytime and +14 ... + 17 ° C at night. In the Caspian lowlands the climate is milder, rather comfortable both in summer and in winter. The best time to visit the country is from April to June and from September to early November.


National cuisine

As in the neighboring Asian countries, the main dish of Turkmen cuisine is plov. It is made from rice, lamb, with the addition of a variety of aromatic herbs, seasonings and spices, dried fruits and nuts. Fatty dishes are usually washed down with sour-milk drinks: "ayranom" and "chalom" from camel milk or yoghurt.

Shorba with meat and vegetables, spicy and spicy stew of camel "Gainatma", soup from mutton and chopped hard tortillas with onion "dograma" are common.

Very tasty, albeit a fatty dish - "kaurma" - lamb cooked in its own juice. Everywhere you can taste real manti - steamed lamb dumplings and nourishing pies: "islekli" from meat with onions and "gutapas" - meat, potatoes, spinach and pumpkin.

Finish the meal "gok tea" - green tea with mint and dried fruit. Alcoholic beverages should pay attention to Turkmen brandy, wine and Turkmenbashi vodka.

Useful information

Time
Turkmenistan is located in the time zone with standard time (GMT + 5)

Tongue
The official state language is Turkmen (3 dialect groups and up to 30 dialects and dialects). Literary language based on the Tekin dialect. The Latin alphabet is used in writing. Uzbek and Russian languages ​​are widespread.

Religion
As in other countries of Central Asia, the population of Turkmenistan professed Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and Christianity. Starting from the VII - VIII centuries. since the Arab conquest, Islam has become the dominant religion. Today, the overwhelming majority of believers in Turkmenistan are Sunnite Muslims of Hanifita.

Population
The total population of Turkmenistan is 5.758 million people

Emergency phones
Fire Service 101
Police 102
Ambulance 103
Emergency operational service 112

Connection
International dialing code of Turkmenistan +993

Currency
The official currency of Turkmenistan is the Turkmen manat

Holidays and non-working days
There are 8 official holidays in Turkmenistan, which are also days off. So to the nationwide holidays include:
January 1 - New Year
January 12 - Memorial Day
March 8 - International Women's Day
March 21-22 - National Spring Festival
May 18 - Day of the Constitution and the State Flag of Turkmenistan
September 27 - Independence Day
October 6 - Memorial Day
December 12 - Neutrality Day
Also, the republic celebrates two major Islamic holidays - Kurban Bayram and Bayram-Ramadan (end of Ramadan). Since both these dates are calculated according to the lunar Muslim calendar, the dates of their celebration are calculated in advance and each year are approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan. These days are also weekends.

In addition, Turkmenistan celebrates a number of national and professional holidays, the days of which are working days. These include:

January 27 - Day of Fatherland Defenders
March 31 - Day of Chemical Industry Workers
April 7 - World Health Day
April 17 - Day of Migration Authorities of Turkmenistan
Last Sunday of April - Holiday of the Turkmen Horse
May 9 - Victory Day
May 25 - Ashgabat City Day
May 29 - Day of Internal Affairs Officers of Turkmenistan
Last Sunday of May - Turkmen Carpet Festival
June 1 - International Children's Day
June 5 - World Environment Day
The first Sunday of June - Day of textile industry workers
June 12 - Day of Science
June 18 - Day of Justice of Turkmenistan
June 26 - Day of the employees of the prosecutor's office of Turkmenistan
June 27 - Day of Culture and Art, as well as the poetry of Magtymguly Fraghi
July 5 - Day of Judicial Workers of Turkmenistan
July 21 - Day of Healthcare and Medical Industry
August 11 - Day of the border guards of Turkmenistan
September 1 - Day of Knowledge and Student Youth
The second Saturday of September is the Day of Energy Industry Workers
September 30 - Day of National Security Agencies of Turkmenistan
October 1 - International Day of Older Persons
October 9 - Day of the Naval Forces of Turkmenistan
November 4 - Day of the customs officials of Turkmenistan
Second Sunday of November - Hasyl Bayram (Harvest Festival)
December 14 - Day of the oil and gas industry and geology
December 21 - Memorial Day of the first President of Turkmenistan S.A. Niyazov (Saparmurat Turkmenbashi the Great)

Transport
The internal transport of Turkmenistan is represented by airplanes, trains, buses, minibuses and taxis - official and "light".

It is most convenient to travel long distances on the wings of Turkmenistan Airlines and other local carriers: many flights connect Ashgabat with Dashoguz, Mary, Turkmenabad and Turkmenbashi on a daily basis. The fleet consists of brand new Boeing 717s, which makes the journey very enjoyable. Ticket prices can be called cheap, the only inconvenience is the high demand for tickets with a limited supply; Reservations must be made as early as possible.

Officially, tickets for domestic flights go on sale 14 days before the flight date, but they are immediately swept away by second-hand dealers, so it is likely that you will have to overpay when buying a ticket at a travel agency.

Shopping
Carpets and horses - two of the main wealth of Turkmenistan. It is unlikely that the handsome Akhal-Teke boy can be brought home (although nothing is impossible), but it is quite possible for anyone to get an authentic Turkmen carpet or rug. The largest selection is in the bazaars of Ashgabat, as well as in the store at the Museum of Carpets, but you can easily find a product to your liking and wallet in any city of Turkmenistan. Nodular carpets made of wool or silk are the most expensive product, and felt mats are much cheaper, and they are no less attractive.

It is more convenient to buy a carpet in a state-owned shop - in this case, all taxes are already included in the price and it is enough to present a receipt at the border to export the product. When purchasing a carpet in a private shop, it will be necessary to send it at its own expense to the Expert Committee under the Museum of Carpets in Ashgabat for examination, which will certify that the age of the carpet does not exceed 50 years.

Photogallery